Azoospermia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment in Delhi
Obstructive and Nonobstructive Azoospermia - Overview
The semen sample or the ejaculate sometimes can have no sperms leading to a condition called Azoospermia. Varied factors attribute to this condition like blocked ducts, hormonal variations, testicular dysfunction, and so on. Azoospermia is divided into two basic types namely:
Obstructive Azoospermia: Obstructive azoospermia occurs when there is a blockage or absence of ejaculatory ducts, epididymis, or vas deferens that can restrict the flow of sperms. In this condition, the production of sperms normally occurs but its transportation is obstructed.
Non-Obstructive Azoospermia: Defects in the structure and functioning of the testes to produce sperms is known as non-obstructive azoospermia.
The obstruction of sperms in obstructive azoospermia takes place in the ejaculatory ducts, vas deferens, or epididymis. These obstructions can be due to
An injury or trauma
A past surgery
Formations of cysts and inflammation
Surgical removal of vas deferens (vasectomy)
Inheritance of certain genes like the cystic fibrosis gene causes abnormal development of ducts.
The causes of non-obstructive azoospermia are:
• Genetic factors: Variations in genes can cause Kallmann syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, or Y chromosome deletions leading to azoospermia.
• Hormonal imbalance
• Retrograde ejaculation where the sperms flow into the bladder
• Conditions of the testicles include:
Absence of the testicles (anorchia)
Varicocele where the testicular veins enlarge impacting sperm production
Undescended testicles which have not descended into the scrotum
Partial spermatogenesis where partially mature sperm cells are produced
Disorders such as diabetes, cirrhosis, or kidney failure
Inflammation of testicles
Sertoli cell-only syndrome where testicles do not produce sperms
Tumors in the testicles
Certain medications, radiotherapy
What are the diagnostic tests for azoospermia?
After acquiring the details of medical history, a physical examination is conducted by an andrologist followed by diagnostic tests such as:
Hormonal tests measure the follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone levels.
Ultrasound to check for tumors, structural deformities, blockages, and blood supply condition of the reproductive organs.
Imaging tests of the brain to determine hypothalamus or pituitary gland disorders.
Can azoospermia be treated?
Treatment approaches for azoospermia are:
Hormonal treatments to balance the hormones causing azoospermia
Surgery to repair a varicocele and improve sperm count.
Surgery to unblock the blockages, reconstruct or connect partially developed and abnormal tubes.
Surgical retrieval of sperms directly from the testicle or epididymis, or extracted from testicular tissue. Sometimes, sperms can be frozen for assisted reproduction or any future analysis.
Genetic analysis of sperm is recommended in case of inheritance of azoospermia to the next generation.
Treatment at OMYA
OMYA is one of the best infertility centres in Delhi who believes in providing the best and safe treatment for various infertility problems. Connect with the experienced hands of OMYA; who use the latest and advanced techniques to cater to the best treatment.