The uterus helps embryo implantation and development during pregnancy. Any abnormalities of the uterus can directly impact reproductive function. Structural uterine anomalies or Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are uterine malformations formed during embryo development. ~ 5.5% of the female population is affected by this condition. Uterine anomalies can be caused due to radiation exposure, teratogenic substances, or infections of the uterus.
During embryo development, a pair of müllerian ducts develop and fuse to structure the female reproductive system. The types of uterine anomalies are classified based on the abnormalities that occur during embryo development. Some of the common types are:
Müllerian agenesis/Vaginal agenesis: This condition is caused due to failure of both the müllerian ducts to develop. Sometimes, other reproductive organs along with the uterus are also malformed. The absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea) and painful intercourse (dyspareunia) are the two symptoms.
The exact cause of Müllerian agenesis is not known. Some researchers believe that the absence of reproductive hormone receptors or genes can be the reason.
Unicornuate Uterus: Here only one of the müllerian ducts develops into a smaller, curved, elliptical-shaped uterus and a differently formed fallopian tube. It is possible for women with a unicornuate uterus to get pregnant but the risk of C-section, delivery before term, and ectopic pregnancy chances can increase.
Uterus Didelphys: This condition is characterized by the presence of a split in the uterus forming a double uterus because the müllerian ducts do not fuse to form a single uterus. Sometimes, two services are also developed (uterus didelphys bicollis) causing recurrent pregnancy loss or preterm delivery.
Bicornuate Uterus: Bicornuate uterus is due to an incomplete fusion of the müllerian ducts. Uterus formed is smaller than that of the uterus didelphys and heart-shaped.
Septate Uterus: Septate uterus is diagnosed in ~55% of women having uterine anomalies. A septum is formed in the upper part of the uterus resulting in a partially partitioned, inverted pear-shaped uterus. The milder form of the septate uterus is an arcuate uterus that can rarely lead to female infertility.
Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can help detect and examine the type of uterine anomalies.
Fertility treatments for uterine anomalies at OMYA
OMYA uses state-of-the-art techniques to provide the best treatment and care for such complex conditions. Treatment options at OMYA include:
• Repair of structural abnormalities with the help of surgeries such as hysteroscopy and laparoscopy.
• Uterine anomalies can affect the transportation of sperms and eggs. In such cases, In Vitro fertilization (IVF) can allow women to get pregnant.
• When none of the above options work, having a surrogate (gestational carrier) to bear the child for the entire pregnancy term.
OMYA Infertility Treatment Centre also fulfills donor requirements and provides surrogacy assistance with necessary medical and legal help.